Monday, March 30, 2020
These are one of the most important steps. Secondly, Ms Visser talked about the importance of movement and placement of your hands. She gave the following examples: holding your arms behind your back looks rather formal and military like whilst putting your hands in your pockets looks rather casual. By actually showing the audience these differences she really got her point across. Ms Visser stated that the best thing you can do during a presentation is a resting position, keeping your hands alongside your body. Supposedly this gives the audience a feeling of comfort. Thirdly, Ms Visser discussed wrong body language. A fair amount of presenters feel the need to hold something in their hands during their presentation, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a pen, notes or a laser pen, itÃ¢â¬â¢s very distracting for an audience because often the presenter finds him/herself playing with these objects. Furthermore, Ms Visser mentioned that constant eye contact with your audience plays a large role in a good presentation. We will write a custom essay sample on Portfolio or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page And thus, pointing at your power point presentation too much disrupts this and therefore you should refrain from doing this. Fourthly, Ms Visser showed a sheet on her PowerPoint presentation, which summed up a few tricks on how to get your audience to pay more attention to your presentation: 1. Put your hands up in a halt fashion. 2. Extend your arms away from your shoulders, as far as you can, turn your wrists at right angels so your palm are facing each other. Extend your arms away from your shoulders, as far as you can, turn your wrists at right angels so your palm are facing each other. 3. Hold your left hand up in front of you, but not in front of your face. Now flick out your index finger, hold this position, flick up your second finger, now your third finger. (Ms Visser showed this with her own hand as an example). Finally, Ms Visser dedicated a small part of her presentation to the importance of eye contact. Arguing that this is the most important aspect of body language. After which she rounded off the presentation with the following statement: Ã¢â¬Å"Gestures, use them please! They brighten up your presentation if you use them well. Ã¢â¬ 1. 3 Praise and critique The amount of examples Ms Visser gave during her presentation was very pleasant. They gave a good impression of what she was saying. The PowerPoint contained to much text, however it had a nice look and a good structure. Therefore the large amount of text wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really bothersome. Something Ms Visser should pay extra attention to is her vocabulary, this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t that good during her presentation. Also, the audience noticed that she was really nervous during her presentation: turning red when struggling with words. All in all it was a decent presentation and I especially liked the PowerPoint. 1. 4 Second presenter and topic The second presentation where I would like to write about is Tessa de Graaf her presentation. Tessa her presentation was going about the options for a speakers voice. 1. 5 Summary Tessa was start with the structure of her presentation. First she was going to talk about the tone and passion. Then about the voice projection and finally about the pace. She was telling that tone and passion could be described in words like enthusiasm care and felling. The tone of a voice is all about emotion. She was giving for example: when a speaker has no passion about their topic, the presentation will mostly come across as a flat and monotone emotion. What she also told was that the passion and tone of a voice allow the speaker to communicate felling of happiness, sadness and nervousness. What she also told was that with a speakers voice you could hear if he is talking formal or informal. She was also giving a example of a funeral speech and show a table on her PowerPoint. About the projection she was told that projection so as the tone of your voice shows emotion. Volume sets the atmosphere and flows you right into the hearts and souls of audience. Furthermore she said that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to talk monotone when you deliver your speech. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to use the highs and lows of your voice. Then you can make the audience really understand how you feel about something. She was giving a example about lowering your volume at a sensitive moment, then the audience will listen more carefully and be feeling closer to you. About the pace told she that you should be aware of the speed of talking. When a presenter gets often accused of talking to fast, that is dangerous because you can lose your audience. But if you are talking to slow, it also will make the audience bored. Her conclusion was that your voice carries your massage to the audience. You have to use diversity with your voice and you have to be aware of the occasion and the audience. 1. 6 Praise and critique What IÃ¢â¬â¢d like in Tessa her presentation was her voice was a very good volume. She has a very good structure in her presentation. She was saying: and now IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to tell you aboutÃ¢â¬ ¦ Some things she was a little bit speaking to fast and with to much Dutch words. I mean words in English spoken in a Dutch language. Her PowerPoint was a little bit boring, but the text in it was good. Not too much and not too less. 2. 0 Own presenation 2. 1 Article name The name of the article was: EveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s a public speaker, even you! (Cartner). 2. 2 Article summary 3. 0 Evaluation of a debate 3. 1 Opening vote 3. 2 Summary of arguments 3. 3 Own opinion 3. 4 Final Vote 4. 0 Two TV reports 4. 1 Tv report: 4. 2 Tv report: 5. 0 Two Ted reports 5. 1 Ted report: 10 top time-saving tech tips (david Pogue) David Pogue starts to tell what he finds so remarkable to (aan? ) society and culture. That is that is you must have for everything thatÃ¢â¬â¢s dangerous a permit: for driving, for possession and to marry. This applies to dangerous things, except technology. For this is no start course. They give you a computer and they throwing you in the deep. How do you have to learn that stuff? Nobody who tells you how to. David Poque is going to tell 10 basics you think everybody knows. It are the following 10 things: 1. If you want to scroll down on the internet, donÃ¢â¬â¢t go with your mouse on the slider, a waste of time. Use the spacebar. With the spacebar you will scroll down one page. 2. If you enter an address form on the internet. In the pop-up menu to fill in your province, donÃ¢â¬â¢t open it, its a waste of time. Type the first letter of your province and you will find it in 1 second. . Also on the Internet if the text is too small, use the CTRL + plus button. 4. If you type something on your iPhone, donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to your text keys to the number keys to enter the space and then the capital. Press two times just into the spacebar. The phone will then keep the point or capital self. 5. If you want to repeat your last call, push the call button and the most recentl y number is coming on your screen. And if you push again, the number is calling. 6. Bij ? leaving a massage on a voicemail. After: Ã¢â¬Å"leave a massageÃ¢â¬ . There coming fifteen other difficult (verrekte) instructions. There is one button, waarmee je direct nar de piep kunt springen. He is telling thatÃ¢â¬â¢s in the most of time hash on your mobile, but you have to fin it out for yourself. 7. With Google you could find more than only a website. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a dictionary, flight database and also a calculator. 8. If you want to select a word in your word document, ga niet als een groentje (nubie) met je muis erover slepen. Click twice on the word and your computer is select it. 9. Slumber time is the time between the click on the button and the actual camera recording. The tip for this is, put the button half way first, if you want to make the picture click it! Hereby you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the slumber time. 10. Last point something thatÃ¢â¬â¢s happened during presentations is that the audience looked on the screen and not to you. If this is happening push the letter B. The B is for blackout and the screen is turning black. He end with: if you missed something, he wants to email you the tips. And congratulations you now have all your technology degree. 5. 2 Ted report: 6. 0 Self evalution I noticed my English changed in a positive way this semester. Due to the fact that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve watched a lot more English television, which helped me increase my vocabulary. Furthermore, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned a heap from my presentation and debate during English class. Personally, this has been a great opportunity to improve my pronunctiation. I believe this also reflects on my English grades of this semester, so far IÃ¢â¬â¢ve passed every exam. 7. 0 Course evalution This semester really helped me improve my English. Especially the presentations about the different ways of presenting appealed to me. Listening to the presentations of my classmater and applying their tips and tricks in my own presentation. The course has been a great learning experience.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Economic Profits vs. Accounting Profits Economic Profits vs. Accounting Profits There are basically two main concepts of presenting financial information in a business: economic and accounting profit concepts. The accounting concept measurement is based on what is actually received by the business while the economic concept analyses and presents what is actually received against what could have been received. These two concepts are affected by several legal, moral, and ethical issues that weigh on their importance in the presentation and effectual consequences the reports will have on the stakeholders. Although the economic profits concept seeks to explain the allocation of company resources in a firm and subsequently reflect the results in illustrating its impact on the shareholders wealth, most state laws mandate companies to provide their financial results through the accounting basis as this information is important in assessing the tax position of companies. Additionally, tax authorities in different state jurisdictions recommend the presentation of consolidated income statements in the accounting concept to make the assessment process straightforward to the authorities and the stakeholders using these statements. Reliable and timely accounting information is very essential in any firm This information should be produced by those who hold high moral and ethical repute in order to allay any form of suspicion on the validity and dependability of information presented. Morality and ethics are likely to be highly unrecognized in the economic concept of accounting as this model provides ample opportunity for fraudulent activity as it deals principally in non cash flow activities but rather economic discernment, as compared to the accounting concept that altogether considers the cash flows registered by the firm. An example of failure registered through difference in the concept includes small businesses that have a high failure and turnover rates. Small firms do not have in place the proper accounting mechanisms that appropriately fit their respective financial structures. This is due to the fact that economic and accounting concepts were primarily designed to fit large corporations (Baker Powell, 2005). The best ways of gauging legal, moral and ethical issues in accounts presentation is through the assessment of the creators and stakeholders of this information in order to determine who exemplifies the best practices. Ethical criteria that could be use in this assessment include assessment of internal control systems, company leadership, reputation and transparency. These issues are representative of the major issues leveraged in economic and accounting concepts of profit accounting.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Strategic Management (Topic In Instruction) - Essay Example With the company, being actively governed by a board, with the CEO, Mr. Edward Perry at the top, it comes to a situation whereby every decision made relating to the company is carefully deliberated. Decisions and rulings that fall under this category include mainly, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mode of carrying out external analysis. An external analysis is a specific analytical method by a firm, which is made use of, to examine the opportunities, as well as threats, that predominantly exist in the business environment (Lee, 2010). It is important for a company such as Timber King to engage in thorough external analysis. Performing this analysis is important, most especially in the long term effectiveness of the firm. Being aware of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive environment comes in handy in terms of exploring the underlying potential in the market. The analysis is considered to be external to the firm if a question concerning the opportunities of the company, or firm, still exists even in the absence of a particular company. These factors are considered to still exist, though have to be acted on, if at all, the firm is to benefit, whether directly, or indirectly, from them (Logan, 2009). For Timber King, the company in question, to perform a thorough and effective external analysis, it is important, to gather as much competitive intelligence about the most important external factors as possible. Basically, the company has to realize factors that may include, political, environmental, social, economic, and generally all related competitive factors. The use of SWOT analysis is the most common, and widely used mode of collecting external analysis (Lee, 2010). The SWOT analysis, also known as SWOT Matrix, refers to a structured planning mode that evaluates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities as well as threats, which are involved or encountered in a business venture. This mode of external analysis involves specifying the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and relatively identifying factors that
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
PDCA project - Assignment Example Therefore, I intend to improve my non-verbal communication skills, thus become a better leader in my profession, as well as my social life. My main aim of choosing to improve this skill relates to its ability to help me build better relationships with my peers, subordinates, the patients I serve, and other stakeholders. I followed the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle to aid me in achieving my personal quality improvement goal. This involved formulating a plan of action to guide me on what I should do. I then implemented the plan, and collected data on the progress of the plan. Collecting the data enabled me to evaluate the success of my plan, hence determined the effectiveness of the plan, or need for modification (Neuhauser, Myhre, & Alemi, 2004). I intended to improve my non-verbal skills through improvement in my listening skills. This involved active listening, which meant giving my seniors, juniors, and other subordinates enough time for self-expression. This involved working on maintaining eye contact with whom I engaged. In addition, I had to work at complementing or contradicting their messages through such acts as nodding, and rolling eyes respectively (Videbeck, 2011). I was also to display acceptance through my posture whenever possible. This meant sitting beside, or across the people I interacted with, instead of behind them, which creates a physical barrier. I also planned to employ appropriate vocal cues, and avoid high pitches, which hinder effective communication. I hoped to treat at least 80% of the people I interacted with in this manner. This measure helped me to gauge my ability to communicate non-verbally, thus measure the effectiveness of my communication skills. The plan was undertaken for four consecutive weeks. During this time, the number of times that I failed to adhere to my plan were recorded on a daily basis in a daily recording sheet. The plan commenced on the 4th
Monday, January 27, 2020
Elderly Physical Activity And Exercise Health And Social Care Essay According to Foster (1983), well elderly are people over the age of 65 who live in the community out of an institutional setting who continue their life-long patterns of coping with life and living. 2.2.0 Physical activity and Exercise 2.2.1 Definitions of Physical Activity and Exercise Caspersen, Powell and Christenson (1985) defined physical activity as any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that result in energy expenditure whereas exercise was defined as planned, structured, repetitive, and purposive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness. In several studies these two terms are used interchangeably. Melillo et al. (1996) stated that when compared to physical activity, exercise is only a component of the overall concept. According to O Brien Cousins (1998) when gerontologists need to measure amounts of physical movements that the elderly may be doing , they tend to use the term physical activity instead of exercise or sport as the latter two may sound like high-exertion and risky activity. 2.2.2 Perceptions of Physical Activity and Exercise Hutton et al. (2009) studied the view of physical activity in older adults. Some consider the involvement in everyday activities such as household chores, leisure pursuits and gardening sufficient for them to meet their physical requirements. On the other hand, others believed that activity needs would be met if one participates in specific tasks other then daily activities. Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001) studied the difference in perception of exercise between the less and the more physically capable group of old adults. The less physically capable group defined exercise as maintaining basic abilities and movement. The more physically capable think that exercise should push physical limits and eventually have a goal, although they did not oppose that ageing increases the challenge in activities of daily living. Wilcox, Oberrecht, Bopp, Kammermann and McElmurray (2005) came to similar conclusions after analysing elderly womens attempt in describing the difference between the physical activity and exercise. Physical activity was viewed as broader than exercise. Walcott- McQuigg and Prohaska (2001) distinguished exercise definition between older adults at different stages of readiness to change, used in the Transtheoretical Stages of Change model by Prochaska et al. (1997). Precontemplators viewed exercise as a form of physical exertion such as performing calisthenics and push ups. Participation in formal programs, walking and home exercises were contemplators perceptions of exercise. A broader definition was given by the action and maintenance group as exercise was defined as housework, dancing, general movement and attending social functions. 2.2.3 Recommendations of Exercise TheÃ American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and theÃ American Heart Association (AHA) released exercise guidelines in 2007 which are an update from the 1995 guidelines by ACSM and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The new recommendation of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for adults over age 65 identified 30 minutes a day, five days per week as the recommended minimum as opposed to previous one that stated accumulation of 30 minutes or more on most, preferably all days of the week (Haskell et al., 2007). A subjective scale that ranges from 1 (resting) and 10 (an all out effort), is used since moderate intensity cannot be defined in absolute terms. Moderate intensity exercise means working hard at about level-six intensity and being able to carry on a conversation during exercise (ACSM AHA, n.d.). 2.2.4 Perceptions of Exercise Recommendation In 2004, Belza et al. found that older adults understood the ACSM and CDC recommendation. In a similar study done by Wilcox et al. (2005) amongst old women, the participants expressed the idea that moderate-intensity is subjective as it depends on the person. Housework and walking were the two most examples given to illustrate the meaning. Others defined moderate intensity by the level of exertion such as sweating, when the heart start pounding and going beyond comfort level. The word accumulate in the recommendation resulted in uncertainty. When asked to give their general opinion on the recommendation, some said that it was good and realistic and others said it was not. In the same study it has been shown that older adults believe that tailoring recommendations to ones age and physical health is more sensible than just using one-size-fits-all recommendation. 2.3.0 Benefits of Exercise 2.3.1 Documented Benefits of Exercise Juarbe, Turok and Perez-Stable (2002) declared that physical inactivity is one of the most important amendable risk factor for many diseases. WHO (2003) stated that physical activity is important in the prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The risk of deaths from cardiovascular disease is reduced by moderate levels of physical activity (Bassett et al., 2002, as cited in Belza et al., 2004). Blumenthal et al. (1999) stated that routine physical exercise diminishes mental concerns such as depression and anxiety. Regular exercise is also related to a reduction in the risk of falling (Gregg, Pereira Caspersen, 2000). Cress et al. (2005, as cited by Hardy Grogan, 2009) stated that physical activity helps the elderly to keep up a better quality of life by enabling them to have the opportunity for a more active and independent life. OBrien Cousins (2000, as cited in OBrien Cousins, 2003) explains that elderly see physi cal activity as high risk behaviour, when in actual fact it is chronic lying in bed which decondition the body and increases the risk of health problems. In fact Booth, Bauman and Owen (2002) confirm that the risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle far exceed the risks associated with regular participation in regular physical activity. 2.3.2 Knowledge and Perceptions of the Benefits of Exercise It was found that when elderly lack the confidence in physical activity engagement, that is exercise self efficacy, being knowledgeable about the benefits of exercise will not necessarily result in increased physical activity engagement (Phillips, Schneider Mercer, 2004). Crombie et al. (2004) in their study found out that elderly had high levels of knowledge about the specific health benefits from exercise participation. However, a small number of participants gave the wrong responses or were unsure of the effects. 15% thought that physical activity can lead to long-term hypertension and 13% thought that exercise can weaken bones. 10% did not believe that participation in regular physical activity would not help them to feel better and in remaining independent. Most elderly believed that exercise can help to improve physical fitness, maintain levels of energy, maintain or increase muscle strength and tone, prevent aches and pains, and give them the opportunity to socialise with other people. Wilcox et al. (2005) examined perceptions of exercise benefits and came up with three types namely being weight and appearance, physical health and mental health benefits. Physical health benefits were the most regularly mentioned benefits of exercise in this study. Such examples include heart strengthening, improving arthritis, and decreasing joint stiffness. Some pointed out specific conditions that would benefit from exercise such as diabetes, high blood pressure and cholesterol. Stress reduction, improved alertness, feeling better, feeling good and improved sleep are examples of mental health benefits cited in the study. When asked about the health benefits of exercise in the study of Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001), many seniors mentioned weight loss and improvements in the heart and breathing. However, it was found that it was easier for elderly to appreciate or detect increased leg strength than increased cardiac fitness, even though they were interested in increasing aerobic and cardiovascular capacity. Walcott-McQuigg and Prohaska (2001) discovered the difference in discussion of benefits between elderly at different stages of exercise. Precontemplators and contemplators discussed benefits in terms of disease processes, such as it keeps you from having the hardening of arteries, prevents weight gain and helps the circulation. While those who exercised used terms such as keeping alert, energizing, relief of stress, keeps you in shape and prevents you from getting stiff. Leavy and Aberg (2010) found out that the inactive and moderately active elderly did not believe strongly that being active could add to life span or avoid disease, despite not denying potential health benefits of exercise. 2.4.0 Motivators to Exercise Resnick (1996, as cited in Keiba, 2004) defined motivation as the inner urge that moves or prompts a person to actionmotivation comes from within. 18.104.22.168 Personal Motivators 22.214.171.124 Health and Fitness Newson and Kemps (2007) in their study among 222 elderly participants examined the incidence of exercise motivation from fitness, challenge or health factors. Fitness factors such as wanting to stay in shape and physically fit were marked as very frequent motivating factors in 51.3% and 51.6% of participants respectively. 30% of elderly stated that weight loss has never been a motivating factor to exercise, while 24.5% always exercise to lose weight. Cholesterol reduction and weight loss promote healthy behaviours adoption such as healthy eating and exercise in elderly (Greaney, Lees, Greene Clark, 2004). Improving fitness, keep healthy and joint mobility maintenance were the most reported motives to engage in exercise and sports in participants of the study of Kolt, Driver and Giles (2004). 126.96.36.199 Challenge Beljic (2007) stated that competition can be an efficient motivational tool for elderly to exercise as it was common amongst elderly who constantly compared their blood glucose measurements whilst on a summer camp. Other people can be a source of external motivation through competition, cooperation and comparison (Fogg, 2003, as cited in Albaina, 2009). Factors such as competitivity and skills improvement were mostly marked as rare stimulating factors (Newson Kemps, 2007). 188.8.131.52 Psychological Resnick et al. (2002) explained social cognitive theory of Bandura (1997). They stated that forethought regulates human motivation and action. Outcome expectations and self-efficacy expectations are the basis of the behaviour cognitive control. This means that the person has to believe that a personal action will be followed by a certain outcome, and has to believe in his or her capability to perform such course of action. Exercise engagement has been repeatedly found to be predicted by a strong self belief in accomplishing exercise (Phillips et al., 2004). Resnick (2002) identified factors that had been found to increase self efficacy in older adults. Such factors include role modelling, verbal persuasionf and encouragement, education about exercise and reduction in exercise associated unpleasant sensations. Doing an activity the elderly really enjoy, was found to be a motivating factor to exercise (Melillo et al., 1996). Exercise adherence is influenced by physical activity enjoyment as discussed by Hardy and Grogan (2009). 184.108.40.206 Other motivators Another exercise enabler, time availability, emerged from the various studies including that of Scanlon-Mogel and Roberto (2004). 60% of elderly in the study agreed that role changes in later life such as retirement permit more time available for elderly to participate in exercise. 9.1% of elderly in the study of Cohen-Mansfield, Marx and Guralnik (2003) mentioned increased time availability as a motivating factor. Tolma, Lane, Cornman and Uddin, (2003) indicated that some elderly are motivated to exercise because of their perceived exercise benefits such being able to perform simple activities of daily living, keeping busy and prevent boredom. 2.4.2 Social Motivators Keiba (2004) discussed that social support could encourage individuals to complete necessary unappealing activities because we as individuals are social in nature. This is particularly significant in the older adult who is more reluctant and cautious in attempting certain activities due to fear of decreased physical abilities and mental acuity. Berkman (1995, as cited in Resnick et al., 2002), described different types of social support related to exercise including instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal types. Such examples of support include accompanying an old adult for a walk, sharing information about exercise, calling a friend to check if they have walked or giving verbal encouragement. According to Hardy and Grogan (2009), social support would increase elderly confidence and reassurance and thus enhance elderly self efficacy in exercise. Family as encouragement was one of the most important themes that emerged from the study by Belza et al. (2004). Family assisted elderly participation in exercise in several ways, such as getting them exercise equipment, providing transport to exercise facilities and by encouraging their participation. Grossman and Stewart (2003, as cited in Bunn et al., 2008) agrees with the latter study as they both cited that decreasing the burden on their family by avoiding sickness was an incentive for some elderly to keep physically active. The motivation of some elderly to stay active and maintain a good quality of life arises from the death and weight problems of their loved ones (Hardy and Grogan, 2009). Cohen-Mansfield et al. (2003) found that 14% of participants stated that having someone to exercise with, motivates them to be physically active. Wilcox et al. (2005) supported this finding as they found that elderly physical activity participation increases and becomes more enjoyable when having someone to exercise with. It was reported that elderly discussed the idea of organizing neighbourhood groups to enable increased communication, support, and planning of physical activities. Because of increased social contact and motivation, group exercise encourages some elderly to be physically active according to Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001). 31.3% of African American and 27% of European American in the study of Schuler et al. (2006) stated that they exercise as it is something they can do with their friends. Swinburn, Walter, Arroll, Tilyard and Russell (1998) stated that patients consider a physicians exercise prescription important. Pfeiffer, Clay and Conatser (2001) in the evaluation of the former statement, pointed out that the physician believe in the health benefits of exercise since he or she equates exercise with medication. 6.1% of elderly in Nowak study (2006) mentioned physicians recommendation as a motive to exercise. 2.4.3 Environmental Motivators Exercise facility proximity to the elderlys house promotes exercise engagement in 10% of the participants in the study of Chen, Snyder and Krichbaum (2001). Huston, Evenson, Bors and Gizlice, (2003) studied further this enabler among elderly in America and found that performance in some type of leisure-time physical activity is increased by having access to parks, clubs and fitness centres, in the vicinity of their homes or workplace. Bunn, Dickinson, Barnett-Page, Mcinnes and Horton (2008) identified accessible and appealing information about physical and psychological benefits of exercise as facilitators to exercise. Convenient scheduling of exercise programmes which are tailored to needs or lifestyles enable exercise participation. 2.5.0 Barriers of exercise The Oxford Study Dictionary (1994, pg.50) defined Barrier as something that prevents or controls advance, access, or progress. Hardy and Grogan (2009) stated that real or perceived barriers can significantly obstruct exercise participation. 220.127.116.11 Personal Barriers 18.104.22.168 Health In the study of Juarbe et al. (2002), 28.6% of elderly claimed that the maintenance of a regular physical activity program was impeded by their personal health condition. Cohen-Mansfield et al. (2003) reported that the ability to stay physically active can be influenced by a variety of chronic disabling illnesses and a general lack of understanding of the role of physical activity. 53% reported pain or health problems as a limitation to exercise. The elderly had the belief that due to their medical diagnosis they should not and were not allowed to participate in physical activity. 12% were restricted by shortness of breath while 27% were impeded by painful joints (Crombie et al., 2004). The perception of making their pain worse and feeling of tiredness and dizziness restricted physical activity (Belza et al., 2004). 22.214.171.124 Concerns Petersen (2006) argued that for many older people, fear of injury is an impediment to exercise. Elderly may have multiple pathologies and they might be afraid of exacerbating their symptoms such as pain, inducing injury such as a fracture and triggering hypoglycaemia for instance. Overexertion concerns were brought up in the study of Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001) such as worrying of death when the heart starts beating too fast. Fear of exercise-associated falls were cited as obstacles to exercise ( Lavizzo-Mourey et al., 2001) as they lead to a decline in confidence, which in turn discourage exercise participation (Bruce, Devine Prince, 2002, as cited in Bunn et al., 2008). Unwillingness to go out at night due to fear of being out alone hinders exercise participation (Crombie et al., 2004; Hardy and Grogan, 2009). 126.96.36.199 Perceptions Wilcox et al. (2005) discussed elderly perception of being too old to exercise and their concern of doing more harm than good. 34.9% of elderly participants in the study of Nowak (2006) and 14.3% in the study of Chen et al. (2001) voiced their idea that their inappropriate age is occluding them from exercising. Zunft et al. (1999, as cited in Leavy Aberg, 2010) in their examination of perceived barriers of the older European adults, found that being too old or not being the sporty type were major barriers in physical activity participation. Relating physical activity to sport and the unawareness of the moderate-intensity activity importance on healthy aging, could rationalize these perceptions, argues Leavy and Aberg (2010). Crombie et al. (2004) pointed out the contribution of lack of positive beliefs of physical activity to sedentary behaviour. Some elderly women voiced their ideas that housework serves as a sufficient exercise and eliminate outside exercise activities requirement (Walcott-McQuigg Prohaska, 2001). 188.8.131.52 Psychological Nowak (2006) reported that 7.8% of elderly women cited self-consciousness as their reason for physical passivity. Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001) in their study assumed that participation in group exercise might be influenced by embarrassment. As reported in the study, an elderly person was concerned that when bending over, the person behind would see the whole rear exposed. Hutton et al. (2009) in their findings of exercise barriers reported feeling of self-consciousness when exercising in the presence of younger people with gym equipment. Dissatisfaction of the body appearance and body mass index, would affect the old adults body esteem and this would influence the level of physical activity (McLaren, Hardy Kuh, 2003, as cited in Hardy Grogan, 2009). McLaren et al. (2003) attributed this negative influence to the effect of body dissatisfaction on the persons sense of well-being and quality of life. Lack of enjoyment is another known barrier to exercise (Wilcox et al., 2005), in fact it impedes 8.3% of elderly participants in the study of Cohen-Mansfield et al. (2003). Laziness, lack of motivation and willpower were identified as barriers to exercise (Walcott-McQuigg Prohaska, 2001; Wilcox et al., 2005). Dergance et al. (2003) in their study about the difference of barriers to leisure time physical activity across cultures found that 19% of Mexican Americans elderly and 45.9% of European Americans elderly stated lack of interest as a barrier. 11.4 % of elderly in the study of Chen et al. (2001) have never considered practicing Tai Chi as they were not interested. 184.108.40.206 Other barriers O Brein Cousins (2003) argues that since older people pack their schedules with voluntary work, care giving roles and probably bingo and other passive games, they genuinely feel they have no spare time left to engage in physical activity. Similarly Schuler al. (2006) reported that among their study population, 12.2% of African American and 10.1% of European American cited lack of time as an exercise barrier. Twenty nine percent of participants in Cheng et al. study in 2007 referred to their difficulty in memorising exercise styles as a barrier to exercise. 22.9% of elderly do not consider practicing Tai Chi as they think they will forget its complicated movements (Chen et al., 2001). The necessity of a walking aid is an impediment to exercise in the elderly (Lavizzo-Mourey et al., 2001). 2.5.2 Social Barriers Petersen (2006), mentioned that physicians occasionally hinder lifestyle changes unintentionally. Patients are given the impression that exercise is not important as physicians do not inquire much about exercise. Rogers et al., (2006) reported low levels of physician counselling on physical activity. Only 34% of a survey participants cited being advised on exercise at their last doctor visit (Wee, McCarthy, Davis Phillips, 1999, as cited in Resnick et al., 2002). ONeil and Reid (1991, as cited in Melillo et al., 1996) found that 16% of elderly did not exercise as their doctor advised them to be careful and not to over-exert themselves. Belza et al., (2004) reported that elderly mentioned family and work obligations which interfere with physical activity routine maintenance. Walcott-McQuigg and Prohaska (2001) indicated that family responsibilities such as caring for grandchildren and older or ailing relatives are restricting the time available for elderly to be physically active. It was also stated that repeated family advice and encouragement can become irritating to the elderly person. Lack of social support from spouse, family and lack of company obstruct exercise participation (Lees, Clark, Nigg Newman, 2005; Wilcox et al., 2005). Ball, Bauman, Leslie and Owen (2001, as cited in Salvador, Florindo, Reis Costa, 2009) stated that walking during leisure time is 31% less likely in individuals who do not have anyone to exercise with. Antikainen et al., (2010) pointed out the elderly family members concern of overexertion and thus resulting in little encouragement to exercise. Negative comments directed to elderly who attempted to exercise discourage physical activity participation (Jancey, Clarke, Howat, Maycock, Lee, 2009). Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001) emphasize this barrier as a group of children was a source of intimidation and hazard for certain elderly whilst doing exercise. 2.5.3 Cultural Barriers A barrier that emerged in the study of Wilcox et al. (2005) was that in the past, exercise was not something discussed and stressed on, and they did not have exercise role models. In fact one elderly woman cited that she cannot visualize her mother doing exercise or even speaking about it. Similarly in the study of Nowak (2006) it was found that the most barriers associated with physical inactivity were cultural, originating from the lack of cultivated customs of a physically active lifestyle in the society. Physical labour of past African American jobs led to their perception that additional exercise was not necessary (Walcott-McQuigg Prohaska, 2001). 2.5.4 Environmental Barriers Difficulty, element of competition and lack of attraction of exercise classes were some of the elderly views that hindered their participation in a class, according to Hutton et al. (2009). Uneasiness was a mentioned concern in a group exercise environment and this pressure is owed to the inability of keeping pace with the class. Wilcox et al. (2005) supported this report by his findings in which elderly discussed the lack of age-appropriate classes and expenses. In the study of Cohen-Mansfield et al. (2003), 10.9% of participants reported bad weather as an obstacle to exercise. Several issues related to rurality such as transport unavailability, lack of pavements, lack of safety and facilities were considered as barriers in Wilcox et al. study in 2005. Pfeiffer et al. (2001) supported these findings by their study and attributed the unavailability of sidewalks with the fear of falling and hence makes walking an unappealing exercise. In the study of Lavizzo-Mourey et al. (2001), unevenness of steps and pavements was cited as another barrier. 16 % of elderly in Cheng et al. study (2007) cited limited public space available to do exercise. Limitation and inappropriateness of space to exercise in the house was found to be a barrier in the study done by Juarbe et al. (2002), usually due to the fact that they live in a confined space with their relatives, shared residential homes or in an apartment. Hardy and Grogan (2009) in their investigation o f the factors influencing engagement in physical activity concluded that the lack of information about exercise and the elderly is limiting their participation. 2.6.0 Variables affecting Impeding and Motivating Factors OBrien Cousins (1995, as cited in OBrien Cousins, 2003) has shown that the elderly involvement in exercise could be significantly affected by the individuals life circumstances such as the age, gender, education and health. 2.6.1 Age Bylina et al. (2006) cited National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion when stating that 28-34% of adults between 65-74 years old and 35-44% of adults aged 75 or older are inactive, not exercising, and engaging in no leisure-time physical activities. Newson and Kemps (2007) compared those older than 75 years to their younger counterparts. They were more likely to exercise to maintain an active lifestyle and medical problems were more likely to prevent them from engaging in exercise. Kolt et al. (2004) found that involvement factors such as getting out of the house and having something to do, and medical motivators were rated more highly by those 75 + than the middle old. The middle-age group reported fitness reasons to be more important than the old-age group. The high ratings of involvement factors may be explained by McMurdo (2000) when stating that loneliness and isolation faced by older adults may be countered by the experience provided by physical activity and exercise. 2.6.2 Level of Education Walsh, Rogot, Pressman, Cauley and Browner (2001) found out that medium or high intensity activities were activities that elderly women with greater than a high school education, were more likely to engage in. Similarly Cheng et al. (2007) reported that exercise participation was lower in less educated people . Highly educated elderly were found to be highly motivated to exercise by social and fitness motivators (Kolt et al, 2004) and an organized exercise program (Cohen-Mansfield, 2003). Involvement reasons were highly rated by those who did not complete high level education (Kolt et al, 2004). 2.6.3 Level of Exercise Time constraints and physical weakness were identified as barriers by the exercisers, while fear of falling and the negative consequences were mentioned by the non-exercisers. Lack of social support is a significant barrier for both. Having a buddy-system in a group exercise would encourage non exercisers to exercise (Lees et al., 2005). Fitness and Challenge factors were reported as frequent motivators by the high-level exercisers when compared to low-level exercisers. Concern, medical factors and lack of facilities and knowledge were rated as frequent barriers to low-level exercisers (Newson Kemps, 2007). Health problems were more likely to be identified as barriers by the precontemplators, although it was a common report among the other groups. Lack of motivation and laziness were identified as barriers by the elderly at every stage of readiness to change (Walcott-McQuigg Prohaska, 2001). Social interaction was an opportunity which motivated the less active participants in parti cular, to take part in exercise (Leavy and Aberg, 2010). 2.6.4 Marital and Habitual Status Cohen-Mansfield et al. (2003) found that having more time available would motivate a lot of married elderly to exercise more frequently. Additionally, it was discussed that since the unmarried would probably be more in need of social interactions, they showed more of an interest in finding someone to accompany them in exercise. It was further discussed that the more socially isolated persons may benefit from social forms of exercise as group exercise would motivate them to exercise. 2.7 Conclusion Elderly persons have different perception of exercise definition, recommendation and benefits. A vast range of motivators and barriers were found to encourage or impede elderly participation in exercise. The perceptions, barriers and motivators were also found to differ with different elderly background characteristics and level of exercise.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
This fact sheet has been developed for the Consumer Education Program by the Communications Commission of Kenya. It was compiled by studying material from various authoritative sources and adopting what Is universally acceptable and relevant to the Kenya situation. The fact sheet is intended to enable Consumers have a good understanding of the issues discussed and hence empower them when making decisions regarding CIT products and services. Introduction One of the biggest threats that a mobile phone user faces today Is loss or theft of the phone.Not only Is the mobile valued as a physical device, the phone may contain personal and financial data stored in the handset or in the phones subscriber identity module (SIMI card). While a stolen SIMI can be barred by a mobile network once the theft has been reported it Is a bit harder to bar the handset from being used with different SIMI card. Unless the user had protected his personal Information with a PIN prior to the theft or loss of th e phone, this data can be accessed by unauthorized persons. Mobile phone users normally store a wide range of information on their phones.This information can either be stored in the phone's Internal or external memory (depending on the make and model of the phone) or In the SIMI card. The SIMI card Is used mainly to store contacts and short messages while the phone's memory is used to store information such as personal photos, emails, and calendar items. In order to prevent unauthorized persons from using the phone and further gaining access to the stored Information, some mobile phones have security features which the user can activate. This fact sheet has been developed to address security of the information stored and what to do should you lose the phone.Securing the information stored. There are at least two methods one can use to secure the Information stored on a mobile phone. These are: a) SIMI lock This method takes advantage of the SIMI card as a storage element to secure private Information associated with the subscriber. The subscriber uses a PIN number which is mostly a four digit code which should only be known to him and is always prompted by the mobile phone every time the SIMI card is inserted into the phone. It Is an effective method since even If the subscriber looses the SIMI card the other person cannot access any information stored on it. Phone lock Mobile phone security This method takes advantage of a password to lock the mobile phone such that access to the phone's functions can only be permitted upon input of the correct password. An eight-digit code is more secure than a four-digit code. Most phones also have an inbuilt an automatic phone lock system which kicks In after a stipulated time period e. G. 30 seconds when activated which Is mostly used as a keypad lock and subscribers are advised to take advantage of this features to enhance the security setting AT tenet phones. N more nana el n a evolves Delve capable AT achieving emails , security especially of corporate email with sensitive internal and external data has become a major concern. This means that mobile handsets hold data which previously only resided in computers. Since this method is more effective and protects more information than the first, subscribers are advised to always lock their phones especially if they hold any sensitive information. Safeguarding your Handset Some of the ways to keep your mobile safe include: ; ; ; Keep your phone safe and out of sight.Only give your number to your friends and people you trust. Avoid using your phone in the street. If you need to call someone in a public place, be discrete and be somewhere where you can see what is happening around you. Use a PIN code to lock your phone. If you're walking alone put your phone on silent or vibrate mode so your ring tone doesn't draw attention to you. Be alert while walking and testing at the same time. Security-mark your phone with a unique code. The best place is underne ath the battery.Many mobile phones are stolen in public places such as cinemas, pubs and nightclubs, especially when they are left on a bar, table or on a seat, so don't leave your phone in such places unattended. Don't leave your phone unattended in a car Ã¢â¬â if you must, put it out of sight and turn it off or switch to silent mode. It takes seconds for a thief to smash a window and enter a car. For a Bluetooth or Wi-If enabled phone install antivirus software to help guard against harmful programs or viruses. For the sake of the safety of very young children; always keep the phone out of their reach.Avoid making easily identifiable entries in the phone e. G. Ã¢â¬Ëmum' or Ã¢â¬Ëdad' for the security of such persons should the phone be lost. There are other methods of securing your phone that are dependent on the genealogy that the phone is based on. The two main technologies used for the provision of mobile services are GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). Phones based on these two technologies connect to their respective networks differently, so the security features differ slightly. Mobile phone security Your GSM Phone's Unique Equipment Identification Number Each GSM mobile phone has a unique electronic serial number called the MIME (International Mobile Equipment Identification) number, which can be identified by the GSM network. It is a 15-digit number programmed into the handset and also written is at the back of the handset, under the battery. On most GSM handsets, it can De Oligopoly on ten managers screen Day pressing ten Key sequence using the keypad, when the phone is switched on.Upon purchase of a mobile handset, users are advised to record their MIME number for use in case the mobile phone is lost or stolen. Your mobile phone service provider can liaise with the police regarding a lost or stolen handset and, if found, your handset will be identified using the MIME. Thieves are deterred fr om stealing mobile phones by MIME blocking. Blocking an MIME on a mobile phone network prevents a GSM mobile phone from being used with any SIMI on any Kenya GSM network. Mobile carriers are able to block the use of customers' lost or stolen mobile phones and unblock recovered mobile phones on their network.They have also agreed to exchange their lists of blocked and unblocked MIME numbers with other mobile carriers so these can also be processed (blocked/unblocked) on all mobile networks. The CDMA phone unique electronic identification number CDMA phones also have a unique electronic identification number, the Electronic Serial Number (SENSE). This number can be found on the back of the CDMA handset under the battery and usually has eight digits, combining letters and numbers. Users are advised tap record this number for identification purposes in case the phone is lost or stolen.Hidden battery power Some mobile phones are designed to reserve battery power. If the cell battery is v ery low and the user is expecting an important call or is confronted by an emergency situation, and doesn't have a charger at that moment, one can activate this reserve battery power. To activate, press the keys *3370#, the cell phone will restart with this serve and the instrument will show a significant increase in battery power. This reserve will get replenished the next time one charges their cell phone.However it should be noted that this only works on some phones. What to do if one's mobile handset is lost or stolen If the user's mobile phone is lost or stolen, the user is advised to contact their mobile phone service provider immediately to suspend service and prevent unauthorized calls being made and billed to the user. If one has a GSM mobile phone, the provider will 3 Mobile phone security block the subscriber's SIMI card and MIME number to prevent heir phone from being used on all Kenya mobile networks.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
A plant manager oversees all daily operations of a plant. He often is in charge of everything from production and manufacturing to making sure policies and procedures are followed in all departments. Supervising and motivating staff members generally are major parts of the job as well. The plantÃ¢â¬â¢s physical operations generally are the main responsibility of the plant manager. He is required to maintain a clean plant free of safety or health concerns.The production equipment and machinery should be meticulously cared for to avoid lapses in the manufacturing process and to ensure quality control standards are upheld. The manager of the plant may also be required to constantly monitor workers to spot any procedural infractions and correct them in a timely manner. In addition to managing daily plant functions, the manager may be responsible for creating and following a budget and preparing profit and loss projections.This requires proficiency in math and skills in creating reports and spreadsheets utilizing commercially produced and in-house software programs. The ability to interpret reports and statistics from outside agencies is also an important skill needed by a plant manager. Having a trustworthy and competent administrative staff in place helps the manager run a productive and profitable facility. From the human resources manager to the person in charge of ordering raw materials for production, the excellence of the supervisorial staffÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is often imperative to the overall success of the plant.The plant manager generally relies on these staff members to maintain good employee relations, quality control standards and meet production deadlines. The plant manager also may attend departmental meetings to personally address and resolve problems. Making sure his plant has a positive image in the community can be important for company morale. The plant manager may also be required to ensure the plant has a good reputation for respecting the environment and other local businesses.If he has to implement changes in physical operations or labor needs that affect local residents, having neighborhood support can be crucial. Public relations may also be a large part of a plant managerÃ¢â¬â¢s job. He often is the designated spokesperson if the media approaches him on any plant-related issues. The manager might be expected to intelligently and positively represent his plant as well as its goals and employees. If a debate ensues, he may be relied upon to persuasively argue his point of view on issues of importance to his company.Being able to objectively view company as well as community issues significantly helps a plant manager succeed. A bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in operations management or business administration is strongly preferred for most plant manager positions. Continuing education classes and seminars on project, plant and human resources management are often required once the job is secured. Experience in producti on, manufacturing or assembly management is considered an asset for plant manager job applicants.